Alexander III


Alexander III
(1845–94)
   Czar of Russia 1881–94. Alexander in was a stern and old-fashioned Russian nationalist, opposed to any kind of reform. When he came to the throne he was determined to undo all the liberal influence brought in by his father ALEXANDER II. His prescription for Russia was Orthodox religion, autocracy, and narodnost (a blind Russian patriotism). Young Jews and Jewish intellectuals played a large part in revolutionary movements. Alexander was therefore ruthless with the Jews. In 1881 the first organized pogrom occurred in Yelizavetgrad (Kirovgrad), and in the next few years there were widespread attacks on Jews. A series of anti-Jewish measures, starting with the May Laws of 1882, imposed severe restrictions on the movement and settlement of Jews. A quarter of a million Jews were moved from the western districts of Russia into the Pale of Settlement. Later, the Jews of Moscow and St Petersburg (Leningrad) were also expelled into the Pale, where some four million Jews were huddled into hundreds of shtetls (small towns). Certain professions were closed or nearly closed to Jews. A numerus clausus limited the Jewish entries to secondary schools and universities to a tiny percentage.
   It was during the reign of Alexander in that the great exodus of Jews took place from the Pale of Settlement to the United States, Latin America, Britain, Europe, South Africa and Palestine. In all, two million of them joined in this mass migration, which altered the face of the Jewish world.

Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament. . 2012.

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  • Alexander III —     Pope Alexander III     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Alexander III     Pope from 1159 81 (Orlando Bandinelli), born of a distinguished Sienese family; died 3 August, 1181. As professor in Bologna he acquired a great reputation as a canonist …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Alexander III. — Alexander III. ist der Name folgender Personen: Weltliche Herrscher: Alexander III. von Makedonien, genannt Alexander der Große (356 v. Chr.–323 v. Chr.), König (356 bis 323 v. Chr.) Alexander III. (Schottland) (1241–1286), König (1249 bis 1286)… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Alexander III — may refer to:*Alexander III of Macedon, also known as Alexander the Great *Alexander (emperor), Byzantine Emperor (912–913) *Pope Alexander III pope from 1159 to 1181 *Alexander III of Scotland (1241 1286), king of Scotland *Alexander III of… …   Wikipedia

  • Alexander III. — Alexander III., d. Gr., geb. im Herbste 356 v. Chr., Zögling des Aristoteles, gelangte 336 nach der Ermordung seines Vaters zur Herrschaft. Einen unmündigen Sohn des Philipp beseitigte Aʼs. Mutter Olympias, den Attalus, der ein Heer am Hellespont …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Alexander III — 1. died 1181, Italian ecclesiastic: pope 1159 81. 2. (Aleksandr Aleksandrovich) 1845 94, czar of Russia 1881 94. * * * I born Sept. 2, 1241 died March 18/19, 1286, near Kinghorn, Fife, Scot. King of Scotland (1249–86). Son of Alexander II, he… …   Universalium

  • ALEXANDER III — I. ALEXANDER III cognomentô Magnus, (ob quam causam Graeci ἀλεξανδρῶδες pro ςθαυμαςτόν, admirabile, dixerunt, quod ad l. 13. Silii Heinsius observat p. 132) Philippi Macedonum Regis, et Olympiadis fil. quamlibet Olympias nobiliorem ei patrem… …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • Alexander III — (d. 1181)    Pope.    Alexander III was born Orlando Bandinelli in Siena, Italy. In his adult life, he was a successful teacher of Canon Law at the University of Bologna and he was elected Pope in 1159, in succession to hadrian iv. His candidacy… …   Who’s Who in Christianity

  • Alexander III — noun son of Alexander II who was czar of Russia (1845 1894) • Syn: ↑Czar Alexander III • Regions: ↑Russia • Instance Hypernyms: ↑czar, ↑tsar, ↑tzar * * * 1. d …   Useful english dictionary

  • Alexander III — ( the Great ) (356 b.c. 323 b.c.)    A Macedonian Greek king who, in the extraordinarily brief period of a decade, conquered all of Mesopotamia, along with Anatolia (or Asia Minor), Egypt, and what is now Afghanistan. Though Alexander s empire… …   Ancient Mesopotamia dictioary

  • Alexander III — n. (1845 1894) Russian czar from 1881 to 1894; Orlando Bandinelli (c.1105 1181), pope from 1159 to 1181; Alexander the Great (356 323 BC), king of Macedonia and conqueror of the Greek city states and the Persian empire …   English contemporary dictionary